XS Innovations is currently further developing and testing the prototype. So far, the device prototype has shown to be effective in four studies.  Not only has it proven its functionality in initial animal testing but is also undergoing rigorous biological impact assessments. 

Prototype development

In the prototype development several studies have already been performed, e.g., a cadaveric arm study and two goat studies.


The preclinical phase entails biological functionality, placement & immobility and longer term biocompatibility testing.


In the clinical phase XS Innovations will test and evaluate the effects of the Dynamic AVF on humans.

Prototype development

Cadaveric arm study

December 2021

XSI performed a study on human cadaveric arm to verify the implantation method and dimensions of the device ex vivo. The mock-up fits easily in cadaveric human arm (BMI and height considered average), could be placed and arm could be closed. Moving arm did not result in rupture of anastomotic sutures.

In vitro mechanical characterisation

January 2022

In January 2022, a mechanical characterization in a benchtop setting was performed. Technical requirements before implantation into animal model, such as non-invasive control of pressurized graft up to skin with a thickness of 5 mm, was determined to be possible.

Goat study 1

February 2022

The first goat study proved the possibility of implantation, non-invasively controlled flow in an acute setting and the feasibility of an actuation method.

Goat study 2

December 2022

The second goat study focused on functionality testing. Closing the AVF normalizes arterial flow and the device appears to be functional after explantation.